Central Nervous System
The Central Nervous System, or CNS, consists of the brain and spinal cord. That sounds simple, but in reality the CNS consist of a complex connection of many sub-components, each responsible for a wide variety of activities in your body.
The brain itself can be divided into many regions. These are often categorized into three main parts: the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem.
The cerebrum can be further subdivided into the: frontal lobe, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, right hemisphere, left hemisphere, and corpus callosum. The cerebrum is involved in a wide variety of functions such as: movement both conscious and autonomic; sensory processing including vision, hearing and smell; language and communication; and, learning and memory.
The cerebellum can be subdivided into lobes, such as the anterior lobe and posterior lobe. The cerebellum is responsible for some functions in motor control, such as the coordination, precision, and accurate timing of movements. It is also involved in some cognitive functions such as attention and language.
The brain stem can be subdivided into the medulla oblongata, the pons, and the midbrain. All motor and sensory nerve connections from the brain go through the brain stem to the rest of the body. The brain stem is important in regulating the cardiovascular, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
The spinal cord is a long, thick bundle of nerves that extend from the brain down to the lower back. It is enclosed and protected by the vertebral column or spinal column. The spinal cord is responsible for the transmission of neural signals between the brain and the rest of the body. It also contains neural circuits that can independently control many reflex actions in the body.