Egypt Geography

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So you want to know about Egypt? Here are some highlights! Also check out the links to other sites about Egypt.

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Key Facts

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Egypt flag Egypt is one of the oldest civilizations, dating back over 6000 years.

Population: 55 million people

Geographic size: 387,000 square miles

Capital: Cairo

Major cities and population: Cairo, Alexandria, El Giza, Suez, Asyut, Luxor, Aswan, and El Minya


Geographic Landmarks

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CityEgypt borders on the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. The Nile, the world's longest river, flows through Egypt on its way to the Mediterranean Sea. Most major cities, including about 99% of the population, lie along the Nile River.
CamelsMost of western Egypt is desert. Winds blowing the sand can create sand dunes hundreds of feet high.


Points of Interest

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Pyramids Egypt still has many reminders of its ancient civilization. Some of the pyramids are over 4,500 years old.

In Ancient Egypt the King, or Pharaoh, built temples to the gods. The King would prepare for his death by building a great tomb or temple to be worshipped as a god. These are the great pyramids.


Major Industries

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Oil and natural gas are two of Egypt's major industries. Chemical and steel production are also important industries. The banks of the Nile River provide rich soil for farming dates, grapes and cotton. Other industries include textiles and food processing.


Historical Highlights

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Sphinx Ancient Egypt was one of the earliest cultures.

Great temples were built to honor the gods. While many were in the shape of pyramids, others took on the form of their Pharaoh. The Sphinx at Giza has the body of a lion and the head of a Pharaoh. The word Sphinx is Egyptian meaning "living image."

Hieroglyphics During the first Egyptian dynasty the idea of writing developed in a pictorial script known as hieroglyphics.

Egyptians told stories about the creation of their world, and about their society using hieroglyphs.


Population and Culture

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Most people in Egypt live in cities along the Nile River. Egypt still maintains much of its traditional culture.



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Egypt is very hot and dry. Temperatures regularly exceed 100 degrees Fahrenheit, and rain is very scarce.
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